As complete as possible representation of both dry and fleshy fruit types 2. Demonstration of as many spices as is feasible 3. Display of survival plants either herbarium specimens or live material indicating how each plant is used 4. Display of poisonous plants either herbarium specimens or live material with notes on toxicity 1.
General features Classification and nomenclature Although a number of classification schemes have been devised for carbohydrates, the division into four major groups— monosaccharidesdisaccharidesoligosaccharidesand polysaccharides —used here is among the most common.
Most monosaccharidesor simple sugarsare found in grapes, other fruits, and honey. Although they can contain from three to nine carbon atoms, the most common representatives consist of five or six joined together to form a chainlike molecule.
Three of the most important simple sugars— glucose also known as dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugarfructose fruit sugarand galactose —have the same molecular formula, C6H12O6but, because their atoms have different structural arrangements, the sugars have different characteristics; i.
Slight changes in structural arrangements are detectable by living things and influence the biological significance of isomeric compounds. A direct correlation that may exist between taste and any specific structural arrangement, however, has not yet been established; that is, it is not yet possible to predict the taste of a sugar by knowing its specific structural arrangement.
The energy in the chemical bonds of glucose indirectly supplies most living things with a major part of the energy that is necessary for them to carry on their activities.
Galactose, which is rarely found as a simple sugaris usually combined with other simple sugars in order to form larger molecules. Two molecules of a simple sugar that are linked to each other form a disaccharideor double sugar.
The disaccharide sucroseor table sugar, consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose; the most familiar sources of sucrose are sugar beets and cane sugar. Milk sugar, or lactoseand maltose are also disaccharides.
Before the energy in disaccharides can be utilized by living things, the molecules must be broken down into their respective monosaccharides.
Oligosaccharideswhich consist of three to six monosaccharide units, are rather infrequently found in natural sources, although a few plant derivatives have been identified. Their distinct shape allows them to be identified in foods examined for research.
Large molecules that may consist of as many as 10, monosaccharide units linked together, polysaccharides vary considerably in size, in structural complexity, and in sugar content; several hundred distinct types have thus far been identified. Cellulosethe principal structural component of plants, is a complex polysaccharide comprising many glucose units linked together; it is the most common polysaccharide.
The starch found in plants and the glycogen found in animals also are complex glucose polysaccharides. Plant starch may be processed into foods such as breador it may be consumed directly—as in potatoesfor instance.
Glycogen, which consists of branching chains of glucose molecules, is formed in the liver and muscles of higher animals and is stored as an energy source. In addition, because the monosaccharides contain a chemically reactive group that is either an aldehyde group or a keto group, they are frequently referred to as aldopentoses or ketopentoses or aldohexoses or ketohexoses.
The aldehyde group can occur at position 1 of an aldopentose, and the keto group can occur at a further position e.
Glucose is an aldohexose—i. Biological significance The importance of carbohydrates to living things can hardly be overemphasized.
The energy stores of most animals and plants are both carbohydrate and lipid in nature; carbohydrates are generally available as an immediate energy source, whereas lipids act as a long-term energy resource and tend to be utilized at a slower rate. Glucose, the prevalent uncombined, or free, sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals, is essential to cell function.
The proper regulation of glucose metabolism is of paramount importance to survival. The ability of ruminantssuch as cattle, sheep, and goats, to convert the polysaccharides present in grass and similar feeds into protein provides a major source of protein for humans.
A number of medically important antibioticssuch as streptomycin, are carbohydrate derivatives. The cellulose in plants is used to manufacture paper, wood for construction, and fabrics. Role in the biosphere The essential process in the biospherethe portion of Earth in which life can occur, that has permitted the evolution of life as it now exists is the conversion by green plants of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into carbohydrates, using light energy from the Sun.
This process, called photosynthesisresults in both the release of oxygen gas into the atmosphere and the transformation of light energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates.
The energy stored by plants during the formation of carbohydrates is used by animals to carry out mechanical work and to perform biosynthetic activities.
During photosynthesis, an immediate phosphorous-containing product known as 3-phosphoglyceric acid is formed. This compound then is transformed into cell wall components such as cellulose, varying amounts of sucrose, and starch—depending on the plant type—and a wide variety of polysaccharides, other than cellulose and starch, that function as essential structural components.
For a detailed discussion of the process of photosynthesis, see photosynthesis. Page 1 of 8.Fruit Types and Classification of Fruits.
Introduction. Although most of us have a good idea what fruits and vegetables are when we eat them, it would be difficult provide a definition for someone of just what makes one food a vegetable and another a fruit.
Fruit categories and classification.
23/12/ _ There are several fruit categorization systems, a simple one has the following six main fruit categories: 1/ Berries: Small, juicy fruits . Alternatives to classifying fruits by general terms include naming fruits by modifying generic names such as seen in Kaden and Kirpieznikov ( and other years), a “morpho-genetic” classification in which they distinguished fruit types by phylogenetic differences based on gynoecial morphology.
World Programme for the Census of Agriculture APPENDIX 3 CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS A new crop classification, the Indicative Crop Classification (ICC) has been developed for the round.
General guidelines (back to top). Cataloguing can't be learned in a day. Dewey is not a perfect system; not all books fit neatly into a single number; Some books can legitimately be catalogued in several numbers; choose the one most appropriate to the curriculum and the conditions in your institution.
HSN BASED COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION CODE FOR VAT TARIFF Report Submitted to The Empowered Committee of State Finance Ministers, Government of India.