However, changes and advancements in economic relationships, political systems, and technological options began to break down old cultural barriers. Business transformed from individual-country capitalism to global capitalism.
More empirically oriented research was subsequently conducted by Williams H. Rivers — who attempted to measure the intelligence and sensory acuity of indigenous people residing in the Torres Straits area, located between Australia and New Guinea. They emphasized the enormous cultural variability of many psychological phenomena thereby challenging psychologists to prove the cross-cultural validity of their favorite theories.
This can be considered pseudoetic work because various cultures have their own concepts for intelligence. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is not only the springboard for one of the most active research traditions in cross-cultural psychology, but is also cited extensively in the management literature.
His initial work found that cultures differ on four dimensions: Indeed, the individualism-collectivism debate has itself proven to be problematic, with Sinha and Tripathi arguing that strong individualistic and collectivistic orientations may coexist in the same culture they discuss India in this connection.
Gerstein,  Roy Moodley,   and Paul Pedersen   have applied principles of cross-cultural psychology to psychotherapy and counseling. Additionally, the book by Uwe P.
Draguns, and Jefferson M. Fish titled "Principles of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" contains numerous chapters on the application of culture in counseling. Varrga are all listed in this book in the chapter titled "Group Therapy with Mexican American and Mexican Adolescents: Focus on Culture as working with Latinos in their way of therapy that is known to be "culturally sensitive".
The countries listed included: Coleman, and Jennifer J. Lindwall propose a way to incorporate cultural components into school counseling programs. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity of the counselor's having multicultural competence and the ability to apply this knowledge when working with persons of varying ethnic backgrounds.
In response to this questions, cross-cultural psychologists have often questioned how to compare traits across cultures. To examine this question, lexical studies measuring personality factors using trait adjectives from various languages have been conducted.
Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether these traits are nonexistent in certain cultures or whether different sets of adjectives must be used to measure them.
However, many researches believe that the FFM is a universal structure and can be used within cross-cultural research and research studies in general. However, other cultures may include even more significant traits that go beyond those traits included in the FFM.
In the field of cross-cultural psychology, Paul Ekman has conducted research examining judgments in facial expression cross-culturally.
One of his studies included participants from ten different cultures who were required to indicate emotions and the intensity of each emotion based upon picture of persons expressing various emotions. The results of the study showed that there was agreement across cultures as to which emotions were the most and second most intense.
Nevertheless, it is also important to note that in the study there were differences in the way in which participants across cultures rated emotion intensity. They found that the Chinese participants were not as skilled as the American participants at perceiving the universal emotional expressions of people coming from a culture different than their own.
Also, because every culture has different values and norms, it is important to analyze those differences in order to gain a better understanding as to why certain emotions are either interpreted differently or not at all. For example, as Huang et al.
This important information may be critical in recognizing the cross-cultural difference between Asian and American judgments of the universal emotional expressions.
For example, Brazilians have been shown in studies to find positive emotions very desirable whereas the Chinese did not score as highly on the desire for positive emotions.Cross-cultural communication is a necessity for any company that has a diverse workforce or plans on conducting global business.
This type of communication provides an understanding of how. Lets consider specific examples of how cross-cultural differences may complicate workplace issues: Teamwork Cooperating to achieve common organizational goals is critical to business success.
Cross-cultural Issues • Commisceo Global Consultancy of the UK offers cross-cultural guidance in the form of country insight reports, cultural and management guides, a cultural awareness manual, and quizzes.
Purpose and Goals of the Standards. The following standards were developed by the Racial and Ethnic Diversity Committee of ACRL (Association of College & Research Libraries), based on the National Association of Social Workers Standards for Cultural Competence in Social Work Practice.
1 The standards are intended to emphasize the need and obligation to serve and advocate for racial and. The objective of cross-cultural training is to educate members of one culture to interact effectively with members of another culture, and to predispose them to a rapid adjustment to their new positions (Waxin & Panaccio, , citing Brislin & Petersen, ; Mendenhall & Oddou, ).Brislin () states that there are three techniques that can be used in cross-cultural training, which are.
Cross-Cultural Perspectives Michella Amonson ETH/ January 16, Mr. Harralson Cross-Cultural Perspectives This paper is an overview and analysis of the ethical perspective and cultural issues that a global organization faces when interacting outside the United States.