Environmentalism had emerged as a popular grassroots political movement in the s with the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring. Those already involved in conservation and preservation efforts were now joined by many others concerned about the detrimental environmental effects of modern industrial technology. In his talk, he discussed the longer-range background of the ecology movement and its concern with an ethic respecting nature and the inherent worth of other beings. As a mountaineer who had climbed all over the world, Naess had enjoyed the opportunity to observe political and social activism in diverse cultures.
They include the science of ecology itself, and cite its major contribution as the rediscovery in a modern context that "everything is connected to everything else. This is a perspective beyond the strictly human viewpoint, beyond anthropocentrism.
A further scientific source for deep ecology adduced by Devall and Sessions is the "new physics", which they describe as shattering Descartes 's and Newton 's vision of the universe as a machine explainable in terms of simple linear cause and effect.
They propose that Nature is in a state of constant flux and reject the idea of observers as existing independent of their environment.
They refer to Fritjof Capra 's The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point for their characterisation of how the new physics leads to metaphysical and ecological views of interrelatedness, which, according to Capra, should make deep ecology a framework for future human societies. Devall and Sessions also credit the American poet and social critic Gary Snyder —with his devotion to BuddhismNative American studies, the outdoors, and alternative social movements—as a major voice of wisdom in the evolution of their ideas.
The Gaia hypothesis was also an influence on the deep ecology movement. Coming to an awareness of this reality involves a transformation of an outlook that presupposes humanity's superiority over the natural world. This self-realisation or "re-earthing"  is used for an individual to intuitively gain an ecocentric perspective.
The notion is based on the idea that the more we expand the self to identify with "others" people, animals, ecosystemsthe more we realize ourselves. Transpersonal psychology has been used by Warwick Fox to support this idea.
Deep ecology has influenced the development of contemporary ecospirituality. Many Protestant sects today regard the Bible's call for man to have stewardship of the earth as a call for the care for creation, rather than for exploitation.
Against this view, Martin Luther condemned church ownership of lands because "they did not want to use that property in an economically productive fashion.
At best they used it to produce prayers.
Luther, and other Reformation leaders insisted that it should be used, not to relieve men from the necessity of working, but as a tool for making more goods. The attitude of the Reformation was practically, "not prayers, but production.
The ontological explanation offered for Human Supremacy by both science and religion, she says, alienate the human being from the community of life and allow for an immoral control and destruction of the wilderness, which, according to her contains the spirit and intelligence of life.
One of the topical centres of inquiry connecting Spinoza to Deep Ecology is "self-realization. Criticism, debate, and response[ edit ] Knowledge of non-human interests[ edit ] Animal rights activists state that for an entity to require rights and protection intrinsicallyit must have interests.
Deep ecologists claim to identify with non-human nature, and in doing so, deny those who claim that non-human or non-sentient lifeforms' needs or interests are nonexistent or unknowable. The criticism is that the interests that a deep ecologist attributes to non-human organisms such as survival, reproduction, growth, and prosperity are really human interests.
This is sometimes construed as a pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphismin which "the earth is endowed with 'wisdom', wilderness equates with 'freedom', and life forms are said to emit 'moral' qualities.
Grey believes that developing a non-anthropocentric set of values is "a hopeless quest".Ecology is a scientific discipline; the study of ecosystems.
Deep ecology is an ethical system that takes as its premise that all living things have inherent value.
Ecology is a scientific discipline; the study of ecosystems.. Deep ecology is an ethical system that takes as its premise that all living things have inherent value. People who hold this philosophy believe that humans should shape their lives so as to have as little adverse impact on ecosystems as possible.
Shallow ecology refers to the philosophical or political position that environmental preservation should only be practiced to the extent that it meets human interests. Shallow ecology provides an anthropocentric defense of the natural world, holding that it is worth protecting to the extent that it .
deep ecology was considered very controversial for this exact principle that states that Shallow ecology is- shallow ecology is kind. ‘Shallow’ ecology is often contrasted with ‘deep’ ecology and the two philosophical views, while somewhat opposed to each other, still seem to be in the refinement mode by the broad ecological community.
At least that is the way I read the various. Dec 12, · Shallow Ecology, as supported by Anthony Weston, an American philosopher and scholar of the work of Aldo Leopold, is far more pragmatic but also less spiritual than the Deep Ecology advocated by Næss.