Lead pipes from a Roman bath Credit:
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.
Needing Charlemagne's support in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the lack of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the time to claim that it was vacant and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself.
History of the Byzantine Empire Early history The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, frescoVatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that as was common among converts of early Christianity Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death  The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa.
These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanised than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture.
This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds.
Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried between andfrom tofrom toand again between and Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of labour between East and West.
Each division was a form of power-sharing or even job-sharingfor the ultimate imperium was not divisible and therefore the empire remained legally one state—although the co-emperors often saw each other as rivals or enemies.
Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire. He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustusand each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesarto share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.
The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus. The western part collapsed in the s while the eastern part ended with the capture of Constantinople Constantine introduced important changes into the Empire's military, monetary, civil and religious institutions.
As regards his economic policies in particular, he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development.
Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own, but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose.
His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church, and showcased his claim to be its head.
In and he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship.
Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration.
In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West—due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinoplewhich left the city impervious to most attacks until To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
His successor, Marcianrefused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the West. After Attila's death inthe Hun Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople.Ancient Civilizations Of Egypt And Mesopotamia - It is said that even some Egyptian medical knowledge was passed down to later Middle Eastern and European civilizations by .
One of the striking features of Roman life, whether under the Republic or Empire, was that Rome was specifically an urban culture -- Roman civilization depended on the vitality of its cities.
The fact the Romans loved their lead isn't in question. We have plenty of textual and archaeological sources that inform us of the use of lead - as cosmetics, ballistics, sarcophagi, pipes, jewelry, curse tablets, utensils and cooking pots, and, of course sapa and defrutum (wine boiled down in lead pots) - but what almost all stories about the use of lead in ancient Rome miss is the. 【 What is the Story behind Ancient Rome’s Art and Architecture Essay 】 from best writers of Artscolumbia Largest assortment of free essays Find what you need here! From The Delian League To The Athenian Empire Thomas Ash Introduction. When Athens began to emerge as a Greek city state in the ninth century, it was a poor city, built on and surrounded by undesirable land, which could support only a few poor crops and olive trees.
【 What is the Story behind Ancient Rome’s Art and Architecture Essay 】 from best writers of Artscolumbia Largest assortment of free essays Find what you need here!
Word Essay Example. The word Essay: Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The word length is consistent with many other kinds of professional writing, from blogs to book reviews.
Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, . ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA. UNIT OVERVIEW. Donald G. Donn, Corkran Middle School, Maryland, USA This unit was created during my first year as a teacher many years ago!
Rome serves up Europe's most intoxicating brew of dazzling art, earth-shaking history, and city life with style. On this tour, your guide will resurrect the grandeur of ancient Rome's Colosseum, Forum, Pantheon, and nearby Ostia Antica.