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Studies in energy, history and language Saturday, November 11, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic By Peter McKenzie-Brown Little in the last ten thousand years has altered our mental lives as much as the creation of reading, writing and arithmetic.
These developments sprang directly out of the first agrarian revolution, which about 10, years ago began to transform humankind from hunter-gatherer to farmer. The adoption of crop cultivation techniques and the domestication of animals led to major social changes.
These included denser populations, hierarchical societies with ecclesiastics in the top echelons, and the development of non- agricultural crafts.
Of particular importance to this discussion is that early economic surpluses spurred the creation of barter and trade. This is reading writing arithmetic rar because business requires accounts, and the need for accurate accounts led to the creation of reading, writing and arithmetic.
In an interesting but challenging paperfour academics dispute the common notion that you need to read, write and do math to create an accounting system. By BC, before people knew how to read, write or count, they were making kiln-fired tokens that represented resources such as cows, goats and wheat.
One cow-token equaled one cow. When five cow-tokens were deposited in a clay urn, the urn served as a crude balance sheet.
Just before the tokens were dropped into the urn, they were pressed on their soft, clay surface. The visible impressions that were left identified the owner of the cows and thus were an early example of disclosure. Such a correspondence was necessary because counting, as we now know it, had not been invented.
Some technology historians take this argument further. In effect, they suggest, accounting led to the creation of the literacy and numeracy that became foundation stones of later civilizations.
In the last centuries before B. The earliest known texts are inventories — in this instance, lists of livestock and agricultural equipment. These come from the city of Uruk, Babylonia, and are dated about BC. All of the alphabets that originated in western Eurasia descended from cuneiform.
And even after religious and secular literature began to develop, accounting remained a far more important use of the technology. The same was true, but more so, for the use of numbers.
The written word is now considered a sacred gift in many societies and many religions. Yet in the beginning, it was entirely associated with vulgar commerce.
For example, after Buddha died his words were considered too sacred to entrust to writing, which was a tool of the marketplace. Instead, his early followers used the practice of communal chanting to consign his teachings to memory.
It was hundreds of years before the religious changed their attitudes to writing, and his thoughts were transcribed as written texts.
Few inventions since civilization began have transformed the operations of our minds more thoroughly than writing, reading and mathematics. And accounting was the source of all three. For many, the idea that accountants taught us how to read and write is the gist and substance of an early accountant joke.Creating a business plan images; Essay on my favorite story book; An analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus in the medical research; How to write an amazing topic sentence for kids.
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Emphasis on basic education in the 3Rs, reading, writing and arithmetic Emphasis on a strong spiritual education and the desired disciplinary elements Emphasis on a Malaysian oriented curriculum.
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