Competing to be the best in business is one of the major misconceptions about strategy. And if you only remember one tip from this list, it should be this one. Many leaders compare competition in business with the world of sports. There can only be one winner.
Applications[ edit ] Anti-reflective coatings are often used in camera lenses, giving lens elements distinctive colours. Anti-reflective coatings are used in a wide variety of applications where light passes through an optical surface, and low loss or low reflection is desired.
Examples include anti-glare coatings on corrective lenses and camera lens elements, and antireflective coatings on solar cells. Such lenses are often said to reduce glarebut the reduction is very slight.
Antireflective ophthalmic lenses should not be confused with polarized lenseswhich decrease by absorption the visible glare of sun reflected off surfaces such as sand, water, and roads. The term "antireflective" relates to the reflection from the surface of the lens itself, not the origin of the light that reaches the lens.
Many anti-reflection lenses include an additional coating that repels water and greasemaking them easier to keep clean.
Anti-reflection coatings are particularly suited to high- index lenses, as these reflect more light without the coating than a lower-index lens a consequence of the Fresnel equations.
It is also generally easier and cheaper to coat high index lenses. Photolithography[ edit ] Antireflective coatings are often used in microelectronic photolithography to help reduce image distortions associated with reflections off the surface of the substrate.
Different types of antireflective coatings are applied either before or after the photoresistand help reduce standing wavesthin-film interferenceand specular reflections.
The optical glass available at the time tended to develop a tarnish on its surface with age, due to chemical reactions with the environment.
Rayleigh tested some old, slightly tarnished pieces of glass, and found to his surprise that they transmitted more light than new, clean pieces. The tarnish replaces the air-glass interface with two interfaces: Because the tarnish has a refractive index between those of glass and air, each of these interfaces exhibits less reflection than the air-glass interface did.
In fact, the total of the two reflections is less than that of the "naked" air-glass interface, as can be calculated from the Fresnel equations.
One approach is to use graded-index GRIN anti-reflective coatings, that is, ones with nearly continuously varying index of refraction. Single-layer interference[ edit ] The simplest interference anti-reflective coating consists of a single thin layer of transparent material with refractive index equal to the square root of the substrate's refractive index.
In air, such a coating theoretically gives zero reflectance for light with wavelength in the coating equal to four times the coating's thickness.
Reflectance is also decreased for wavelengths in a broad band around the center. A layer of thickness equal to a quarter of some design wavelength is called a "quarter-wave layer". The most common type of optical glass is crown glasswhich has an index of refraction of about 1.
An optimal single-layer coating would have to be made of a material with an index of about 1. Unfortunately, there are no solid materials with such a low refractive index.
The closest materials with good physical properties for a coating are magnesium fluorideMgF2 with an index of 1. MgF2 coatings perform much better on higher-index glasses, especially those with index of refraction close to 1.
MgF2 coatings are commonly used because they are cheap, and when they are designed for a wavelength in the middle of the visible bandthey give reasonably good anti-reflection over the entire band. Researchers have produced films of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with refractive indices as low as 1.
Coatings that give very low reflectivity over a broad band of frequencies can also be made, although these are complex and relatively expensive.
Absorbing[ edit ] An additional category of anti-reflection coatings is the so-called "absorbing ARC".
These coatings are useful in situations where high transmission through a surface is unimportant or undesirable, but low reflectivity is required.
They can produce very low reflectance with few layers, and can often be produced more cheaply, or at greater scale, than standard non-absorbing AR coatings.
See, for example, US Patent 5, Absorbing ARCs often make use of unusual optical properties exhibited in compound thin films produced by sputter deposition.
For example, titanium nitride and niobium nitride are used in absorbing ARCs.
These can be useful in applications requiring contrast enhancement or as a replacement for tinted glass for example, in a CRT display. Moth eye[ edit ] Moths ' eyes have an unusual property: This allows the moth to see well in the dark, without reflections to give its location away to predators.
Practical anti-reflective films have been made by humans using this effect;  this is a form of biomimicry. Such structures are also used in photonic devices, for example, moth-eye structures grown from tungsten oxide and iron oxide can be used as photoelectrodes for splitting water to produce hydrogen.
Light reflected from the surface after the polarizer is transformed into the opposite "handedness". This light cannot pass back through the circular polarizer because its chirality has changed e.
Thick-film effects arise because of the difference in the index of refraction between the layers above and below the coating or film ; in the simplest case, these three layers are the air, the coating, and the glass.Reflective thinking in teaching is associated with the work of Dewey (, ), who suggested that reflection begins with a dilemma.
Effective teachers suspend making conclusions about a dilemma in order to gather information, study the problem, gain new knowledge, and come to a sound decision. Comment by djanco not sure if this is a bug or not but when taking the crystal to the places and clicking on the prompts nothing happened, but i know there's supposed to be a full voice-over for this quest.
and you don't get anything for completing it but 19 gold and there's no follow-up. is this intended? Step 2 – Open the Reflection project and Activity Layout. Now it’s time to run your scenario. ie: make changes to the Reflection project to test out your scenario, hypothesis, etc.
, "sketch of the plot of a play," from Italian scenario, from Late Latin scenarius "of stage scenes," from Latin scena "scene" (see scene).Meaning "imagined situation" is first recorded , in reference to hypothetical nuclear wars.
We have a property of type long? that gets filled with an int. This works fine when i just set the property directly lausannecongress2018.com = v; but when i try and set the property through reflection .
Competition within ecosystems. Summary The resources that animals mainly compete for are food, water, space to live and breed in (including access to food and water), and for access to mates.